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Online Scroll Saw Class - Incredibly Fun Adventures in Scroll Sawing #4: Let the Scrolling Begin - Casting on and Casting Off

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Blog entry by Sheila Landry (scrollgirl) posted 1098 days ago 12866 reads 7 times favorited 69 comments Add to Favorites Watch
« Part 3: Applying the Pattern for Scroll Sawing Part 4 of Online Scroll Saw Class - Incredibly Fun Adventures in Scroll Sawing series Part 5: Cutting Outside Curves »

Now that everyone has their patterns applied to the wood, we are finally ready to turn on our saws and do some cutting.

Since the practice patterns that I have given you have no inside cuts, we are going to learn some practical ways to start and finish our cutting lines. I call this ‘casting on’ and ‘casting off’ the wood.

Most people – especially when starting out – just aim for the part of the design that is closest to the edge and start cutting. This isn’t always the best option , as it sometimes leave little bumps or points where the blade meets up from where it went in.

Also, there are times when you dive in at a point that may be strong when you begin your cutting, but will be much weaker by the time you come around the line and try to cast off. This could result in a problem shaving off that little section that is left and possible cause damage to your piece. With a little thought and planning, this could be avoided and things can be much easier and look better on your scroll work.

Here is a picture of some of the pattern pieces with curved edges from our practice sheet:

I have mounted them on a 3/8” piece of maple for this practice exercise. You can use just about any wood you have extra in your shop. You will just need to adjust which blade you use accordingly.

To cut the pieces out, I chose a #3 Mach blade by Olson. The reason I chose this blade is because I want something that will cut through the maple easily, but also something that I will be able to control enough so that I will be able to follow the lines comfortably.

If I am using a blade that is too big, I will have too much friction from the blade and it will not only be difficult to maneuver it around the design, but it will also increase the chance of ‘chatter’ (where the blade grabs the piece of wood and it jumps from your hands and rattles up and down on the saw table.) If I use a blade that is too small, I will have difficulty following the line, as the blade will want to follow the grain of the wood and it will take more effort to push the wood through the saw.

Using the proper blade size will minimize these two things considerably.

You should be able to gently guide the piece through the saw, allowing it to do the work for you and it should not be something that you need to labor on.

If you don’t have the same type or thickness of wood, or are using different blades, test them out on a scrap and see how they perform. Most times you could use a range of sizes to cut the same piece and it will still work out fine for you. It just depends on your personal preference that you will develop as you learn.

Once you choose the type of blade you are going to use, install it in your saw. Prior to installing the blade, I strongly recommend that you clean the ends of the blade in some mineral spirits so that you remove any oil or coating that the blades may have on them from packaging and shipping. Not all blades have this, but I found that many companies do put a coating of some sorts on them to prevent rust and this coating can cause blades to slip out of the blade holder when you are cutting. If this happens and you are not initially aware of it, it is possible that the coating can transfer to your blade holders on your saw and perpetuate the problem, even with blades that are clean. If this happens, it is necessary to also clean the blade holders of your saw in the same manner. I have found that many blade slipping problems can be solved by doing this, and it is better to start clean and stay clean by performing this simple step.

Simply Dip the end of the blade into some mineral spirits:

I use a small plastic cubby with a sponge in the bottom to keep some mineral spirits handy by my saw. Then I use a clean paper towel to wipe the ends of the blade off completely:

We are now ready to install the blade. Since everyone here has different saws, you need to get to know how to do so properly on your own saw.

Once the blade is installed, the next step is to set the proper tension. This can be one of the trickiest parts of using a scroll saw, and something that is best learned by practice and experience.

Many times I receive questions from people asking how to tell if they have the proper tension. While it is difficult to be exact without being there with you, there are some basic guidelines that you should follow that will help you out.

I feel that the tension should be set fairly tight. When you pluck the blade, you should hear a high pitched ‘ping’ and there should be little flex in the blade when you push your finger against it (the saw should be OFF!)

The best way to know if you have the proper tension is to do a test cut. If you are cutting and the blade is bowing and you have to use a lot of pressure, chances are the blade tension is too loose. A sharp blade that is the proper size should cut through the wood fairly easily without excessive pressure. You should also be able to follow a line fairly easily without the blade wandering and following the grain. If it does this and you feel that it is tensioned enough, you may need to increase the size of the blade you are using.

On the other hand, if you find that you are breaking blades prematurely when they are still sharp, that could be a sign that you are tensioning the saw too much. This would occur more frequently when you are using very small blades. If you notice this happening, try to back off the tension just a little bit and see how you do. If you try this and find that now you can’t follow your line, again try going up another blade size.

I realize that blade sizes and amount of tension can be a very complicated issues. It is difficult to summarize everything and every case scenario in one lesson. My plan for the class here is for us to do several different cutting projects using many different techniques, types of wood, thicknesses and so forth so that we can gain a feel for what to use when we are choosing our own projects. In essence, I want to give you the basic building blocks of information you can apply to other circumstances in your own practical uses. I also encourage you to ask questions at the end of this lesson so we can discuss your concerns and help others in the process.

So on to cutting . . .

Let’s start with the bear. I have drawn an arrow on the pattern piece which points to a suggested entry point if I were cutting this piece out.

Many times I have seen new scrollers start to cut a piece like this by going straight to the nose of the bear since it is the closest part of the piece to the edge of the board. I don’t recommend doing this for two reasons:

-In general, I don’t recommend beginning a cut on an outside curve.

-It doesn’t give you a chance to get a ‘feel’ for what you are cutting and make minor adjustments before you get to the cutting line.

Let’s discuss my reasons for these suggestions. We’ll start with the first reason – not beginning the cut on an outside curve.

When you scroll saw, the place that you start and stop your cut can sometimes leave a small bump where the blade enters the wood and ultimately exits. This is especially true when you are starting out in scroll sawing and are still learning to control the blade. But it is common, and happens to many of us who have scrolled a long time, too. You can see what I mean by the picture below:

This occurs because the blade doesn’t meet up exactly at the point where it enters on your line. With a bit of practice, you usually can keep this little bump to a minimum, but many times to some extent there is a small mark.

Now on pieces such as this oval, we have no choice but to cast on to an outer curve. The entire piece is rounded and there is no other option. It is nothing to worry about, and we can easily sand the edge to minimize the spot or eliminate it altogether.

But for many pieces, we have other options. For example, if we would have chosen to cast on at the nose of the bear, sanding that bump could become a bit of a problem. If the nose were on the grain of the wood in a certain direction, we would take the chance of losing a little piece while sanding, or having it shaped funny. Also, by casting on to pieces at the outside curves, you may find the pieces will be weakened at the end of the cut, such as when you are cutting scrolls and curls.

So for now, I am suggesting that you cast on to your piece on an inside curve or corner. This way if there is a discrepancy between where the blade enters and exits, it is well hidden in a curve or corner of the piece and not as obvious.

The second reason that I like to begin deeper into the piece and a bit away from the edge of the wood is that it gives you a little time to get the ‘feel’ of what you are doing. By cutting through the wood for an inch or two, you can make fine adjustments to things like tension and speed and find your comfort zone while you are still in the waste area of a piece and before you start the actual cutting.

You may feel the blade pulling to one side or another and decide that you need a bit more tension. You may also have to push a bit too hard to get through the wood and decide to change the blade to a new one or even a size larger. These few seconds can mean a lot to you and allow you to feel comfortable with what you are doing before you even begin to cut your piece. You can save yourself many headaches this way and feel confident that once you are cutting, you have everything set correctly.

So now we begin to cut the bear. First you follow in the waste area and aim for the entry point :

You will notice that your saw will cut slightly to the right and not exactly straight ahead. Due to the characteristics of blades and the way they are made, this is typical and expected. We will talk about that more in a subsequent lesson when we are looking at cutting straight lines.

It is important to relax and go at a nice, even pace. Make sure that your shoulders are relaxed and that your elbows are down and you are not tense.

Gently guide the piece through the saw. Let the saw do the work. You aren’t in a race and don’t need to speed through things. The most important thing is control. Use your fingertips to gently hold down and guide the piece through the blade.

Since you are aiming for the cutting line on the neck of the bear, start to back off your forward pressure and momentum approximately 1/4” from the line. That way you won’t over cut too far and go into the piece. Remember even a correctly tensioned blade is slightly flexed toward the back as you are pushing forward, and slowing down allows it to relax into a perpendicular position again. The illustrations below show this.

First this is an illustration of the how the blade is flexing to the back while you are pushing the piece forward:

And then when you stop pushing forward, it allows the blade to come to a perpendicular position:

This is when you should pivot and turn your piece.

Once you made your 90 degree turn, you are ready to cut along your piece. Use your fingertips to gently guide the piece through the blade. Remember to let the blade do the work for you and you are in essence ‘steering’ the piece through.

Slow down at the sharp curves and allow the piece to pivot left or right before you continue your forward motion.

If you go off of the line, gently and gradually work back toward it. With most pieces, this slight variance won’t even be noticed, and as you get better, it will be easier to stay on the line more and more.

When you come around to your starting point, aim as closely as you can to the point where you began cutting on the piece. If there is a slight bump where you didn’t quite meet up, it will be barely noticeable in the corner:

When you finished cutting, just peel off your pattern. Name your little bear (I am going to call my bear ‘Byron’!) and be really proud of yourself! You learned a lot cutting this little bear. Practice some more and cut an entire bear family! Hopefully it will be the beginning of some great new projects and a lot of fun for you!

I think we are going to stop here for today’s lesson. As I compiled this information for you, I understand that it is a lot to learn. The beginning lessons will be like this – short and focused, yet full of information. There is so much that you should know at the beginning that I feel if I go much faster, I will overload you with things and you will be frustrated. As we learn our basic steps, we will be moving forward a bit more quickly and doing more specialized techniques. But in the beginning, I don’t want to miss anything important so I am trying to go at a pace that everyone can handle.

I made a short video which shows me cutting the bear out. I am not the best at doing videos, but I think it is watchable and will get the point across. (I’ll never be a ‘Steve’ though!) I hope this helps you understand things a bit better.

At the end my pattern kind of came off a little. Those things do happen and it was possible to finish cutting anyway. Part of that could be that I am still not used to using the spray adhesive over the blue tape, where I could afford to spray it on a bit heavier. I am sure I will get used to it the more I do it.

Please feel free to ask questions about things you may not understand. I will answer them as fully as I can and I am sure that others here will help out too. I welcome all of your thoughts and input and hope you enjoyed this lesson.

-- Contributing Editor, Creative Woodworks and Crafts Magazine, If you like reading my blog, come visit at Sheila Landry Designs http://www.sheilalandrydesigns.com "Knowledge is Power"



69 comments so far

View littlecope's profile

littlecope

2881 posts in 2098 days


#1 posted 1098 days ago

Very well explained and demonstrated Sheila!!
Scroll sawing is a curious mix of a firm hand, with a light touch… if that makes any sense…
Guiding, rather than pushing the wood…

I’m afraid I didn’t do my homework today Miss Landry…
The scroll Saw was in use for something else… :)

-- Mike in Concord, NH---Unpleasant tasks are simply worthy challenges to improve skills.

View Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)'s profile

Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)

7463 posts in 1516 days


#2 posted 1098 days ago

Uh, OH! Insubordination already? What AM I to do LOL

You will be able to catch up whenever you get the chance, Mike. You are right in that it is a firm but light touch. I was trying to think how to explain this. I am going to try to show it in a video tomorrow (it’s too late tonight) I will add it on the bottom of the lesson so please check back.

I am glad you liked the lesson. :) Thanks!

Sheila

ps – what were you using the saw for – or shouldn’t I ask? ;)

-- Contributing Editor, Creative Woodworks and Crafts Magazine, If you like reading my blog, come visit at Sheila Landry Designs http://www.sheilalandrydesigns.com "Knowledge is Power"

View KnotCurser's profile

KnotCurser

1792 posts in 1664 days


#3 posted 1098 days ago

Very nice lesson ‘Teach.

I most certainly would have started my cut at the nose!

I guess you can teach an old dog new tricks! Thanks.

-bob

-- Robert Rhoades WoodWorks / Email: rrww@rhoadesclan.com / www.rhoadesclan.com

View Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)'s profile

Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)

7463 posts in 1516 days


#4 posted 1098 days ago

Well, that means a LOT to me coming from you, Bob! I am one happy girl tonight! :) It’s funny how we come up with these little things that make our days easier. There are so many little tidbits of information that is shared with discussions and groups like this. I like the thought of trying new things and sharing ideas. It enriches us all!

Thank you kindly for the comment! It is a pleasure to share!

Sheila

-- Contributing Editor, Creative Woodworks and Crafts Magazine, If you like reading my blog, come visit at Sheila Landry Designs http://www.sheilalandrydesigns.com "Knowledge is Power"

View lightweightladylefty's profile

lightweightladylefty

2592 posts in 2308 days


#5 posted 1098 days ago

Sheila,

Maybe you covered this earlier: My cheap saw has a “presser foot” (I’m talking sewing-machine-talk now because I don’t know the correct term for the scroll saw). You don’t show it in your photo. Is it removed for purposes of clarity of photo details or am I better off without it holding down the wood?

And, yes, I would have started at the nose, too. You certainly know human nature! Thanks for the lesson. I’m not actually “doing,” but I am “reading.” (It’s too hot to even step outside the house to get to the shop!)

L/W

-- Jesus is the ONLY reason for ANY season.

View Mickey Cassiba's profile

Mickey Cassiba

312 posts in 1627 days


#6 posted 1098 days ago

Aiee. My blades are not scheduled for delivery, until tomorrow.

-- One of these hammers oughta fix that...

View MrsN's profile

MrsN

939 posts in 2122 days


#7 posted 1098 days ago

I have taken the “presser foot” off of all the saws I use. I find it gets in the way.

-- ----- www.KNWoodworking.com ----- --

View BertFlores58's profile

BertFlores58

1644 posts in 1518 days


#8 posted 1097 days ago

Hi Sheila,
Well explained not only in details but also in pictures..

-- Bert

View huntter2022's profile

huntter2022

275 posts in 1211 days


#9 posted 1097 days ago

lightweightladylefty >>>>> You will find alot of scrollers remove the foot . Makes it easier to see the cut line and when you get into more detail patterns easier to change to the next cutting area.

For a pattern like the bear > I like to put the feet on the square edge of the board (when possiable) then start at the front foot and work around .
The way it is showed I would of cut straight along feet then up the back and around

To back it up for the newer people mostly and reminder for others

READ YOUR MANUAL !!! Keep it in a safe place ! I know your probably saying ya ya whatever.
There is alot of information in there. There is routine maintenance , troubleshooting, part list , and contact info.

Determine if your blade is square with your table, 1—Get a small 2 inch Square, or a small protractor I have used A combination square minus the ruler.
A credit card

2—Cut about A 1/2 inch into a piece of wood, remove it,and put it behind the blade ,
if the blade slip into the cut it is Square.
Loosen the pointer just enough to adjust it to zero . Tighten the pointer make sure it doesn’t
move . Now your ready to cut.

Now that it is squared up.The adjustable pointer on your table you need to set that.

Tip: Try raise the back of your saw up , I have a 4”x4” on mine, some use a 2”x4” , making it easier to see your work . less strain on your neck

-- David ; "BE SAFE BE HAPPY" Brockport , NY

View Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)'s profile

Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)

7463 posts in 1516 days


#10 posted 1097 days ago

Thank you for the information David! Those are some really good points. I appreciate your input. I really hadn’t meant the bear to be perfectly flat on the bottom, as you could see at the pattern, but if you wanted to use him as a stand up or for other things that have flat edged, that would definitely be the way to do it. :)

As for the hold down – I am with MrsN. I think that they are cumbersome and get in the way more than anything. I don’t think I know of any scrollers that use them. I think that because of the changing degrees of pressure you need to use as you turn and cut, they are not very practical and interfere with cutting more than helping you. On my new saw, it was the first ‘adjustment’ I made – taking it off.

:)

-- Contributing Editor, Creative Woodworks and Crafts Magazine, If you like reading my blog, come visit at Sheila Landry Designs http://www.sheilalandrydesigns.com "Knowledge is Power"

View helluvawreck's profile

helluvawreck

15382 posts in 1462 days


#11 posted 1097 days ago

Sheila, this is very well written and very comprehensive. I believe that you are bound and determined to make us all expert scrollgirls and scrollboys. ;-)

-- If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. Henry David Thoreau

View William's profile

William

8884 posts in 1438 days


#12 posted 1097 days ago

We started with the bear and cutting curved pieces. What about the six point star with the “non-curved” sharp corners. Are you covering that in a later lesson?
I ask becaus I was interested in how you would cut that. I know how I would do it, but as I said when this class started, I always enjoy seeing how others do things. Sometimes it makes me change my own methods. You CAN teach an old god new tricks.
Personally I would cut that in one of two ways depending on if I’m cutting one or if I’m stack cutting. I won’t go into that at the moment though until I find out if you’re planning on covering that later.

-- http://wddsrfinewoodworks.blogspot.com/

View KnotCurser's profile

KnotCurser

1792 posts in 1664 days


#13 posted 1097 days ago

I will add my opinion about the hold-down. I don’t use it either – I have to agree that it’s way more cumbersome than useful.

HOWEVER….......... This IS a safety device that prevents the blade from grabbing the piece and quickly/violently slamming it back down on the table a few times. Startles the daylights out of you and could possibly damage your fingers. Also screws up your blade if you don’t stop it quickly.

I would suggest you use it for the first few projects and then get rid of it if it bothers you (which it probably will). Once you do stop using it, be prepared for the first time your piece gets lifted by the blade and slapped back down on the table! I am certain everyone with a few hours of cutting under their belts have had this happen to them. Never happens on larger pieces – just smaller, thicker ones.

-bob

-- Robert Rhoades WoodWorks / Email: rrww@rhoadesclan.com / www.rhoadesclan.com

View Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)'s profile

Sheila Landry (scrollgirl)

7463 posts in 1516 days


#14 posted 1097 days ago

Hi, William:

Yes, I do plan on covering it in the next class. That piece isn’t a curve, but when I laid out the pieces for the previous class, I suppose I didn’t realize that there would be so much information in this class. I didn’t want to make the lesson too long and I noticed it was getting that way. So we will go over that next time. :)

As for the hold down, you probably should give it a try. Perhaps you will feel it helps you – especially in the beginning. I agree though that it does interfere with holding and turning your piece and does get in the way.

Sheila

-- Contributing Editor, Creative Woodworks and Crafts Magazine, If you like reading my blog, come visit at Sheila Landry Designs http://www.sheilalandrydesigns.com "Knowledge is Power"

View Rick13403's profile

Rick13403

208 posts in 2100 days


#15 posted 1097 days ago

Excellent lesson Sheila. I am one of a few that still have the hold down still on my saw. I just raised it up and let it hang there. Thanks for taking on this class with everything else that you do.

-- Rick - DeWalt 788 - www.thescrollerandtoler.com

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