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Black Locust

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Blog entry by WoodGoddess posted 11-13-2012 05:39 PM 3126 reads 0 times favorited 7 comments Add to Favorites Watch

The new environmentalism, besides lobbying to persuade political interests and educating consumers on how to protect natural resources and ecosystems, has gained ground in many industries from wood manufacturing to landscaping to architecture. Sustainability of our natural resources has seen a rebirth. This drive to conserve our natural resources has seen a re-emergence among many individuals, groups and companies to seek alternative sources rather than deplete that resources that are nearly gone.

Why Black Locust?

At the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) 2011 annual meeting, more than 6,000 landscape architect professionals gathered for forums, lectures and discussions about sustainable methods in design, and among the hot topic was black locust wood. What does a seemingly non-invasive native tree found in southern Pennsylvania to northern Georgia and Alabama and as far west as Oklahoma, have to do with the possibility of domestically-grown sustainable forestry and wood harvesting? Perhaps, more than we know.

A research project presented at the 2011 ASLA meeting by the Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates show a plantation in Hungary producing a wide range of black locust trees, including some trees with the potential to produce top quality wood. The plantation in Hungary found that black locust trees can be grown only in areas where oak cannot be established. With the assistance of a local forestry research organization and local wood producers, 8500 hectares, or 21,000 acres of dense black locust forests are being harvested yearly for production. Another 700,000 ha (1.7 million acres) of abandoned agricultural fields are to be forested within the next 50 years creating an additional 35 to 40 percent more black locust plantations in Hungary. Why the overabundance of black locust trees. Black locust wood, amongst it many properties, is heavy and hard which translates into remarkable durability. It’s fast growing, and a black locust tree can gain more than 4 feet in height per year in good conditions. Best of all its naturally resistant to rot and insect infestation. While its native to the United States, it tends to take root in areas that other trees can’t, making it extremely adaptable to surrounding conditions and fertile in densely planted areas. In Europe and Asia the black locust tree is an acceptable crop, and a number of countries are moving forward with planting huge forests for wood production, something hasn’t happened in the United States.

Because of its fast-growing properties, the government gave black locust trees to the early U.S. settlers. Within 15 to 20 years, the tree could be cut down and used as firewood. At 30 years of age it can be used in production for building materials. Today, even lesser-grade black locust wood can be used for many other products including mulch, biomass fuel, parquet and greenhouse poles making the tree entirely useful with none of its parts wasted.

Upgrading the Domestic Black Locust Industry
While the black locust market remains in its infancy in the U.S., worldwide there are 5 million acres of black locust in cultivation, and virtually zero here in the United States. In other parts of the world, the black locust tree isn’t seen as an invasive pest as it is in the United States. Korea has 1.2 million acres, China has 1 million acres and Hungary has 270,000 acres of black locust forests.

In fact, tracing the origins of the black locust tree in America finds it being extensively used by the Amish. The Amish, notoriously known for not wasting any part of their timber or lumber, use black locust wood, having perfected unique techniques over generations that reveals a template for possible future black locust production. The secret to their black locust production techniques is using a proper kiln drying method.

Black Locust Kiln-Drying Method
Because of the wood’s natural ability to resist rot and insect infestations, black locust wood is a bit tricky to dry. The most difficult portion is achieving the 12 percent moisture content. According to the Purdue University’s Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, black locust wood can weight 48.2 pounds per cubic feet with a 12 percent moisture content, making it as heavy and dense as most oaks. During the drying process, the wood’s total volumetric shrinkage is 10.2 percent, a very low shrink rate, which makes it very stable when working with it.

The complex multi-level kiln drying process involves letting freshly cut wood air dry first, followed by a kiln-drying using a dehumidifier kiln. According to woodcrafters, kiln drying black locust wood is not for the lazy, it requires extreme diligence and patience to follow its very strict process and its 40 to 50 days of air drying before it can be used in production. While drying it takes time, many landscape architects and woodcrafters consider it worth it. Beyond its environmental sustainability, it’s extremely cost effective at $5.44 per square foot as compared to other woods with the same properties.



7 comments so far

View Raymond Thomas's profile

Raymond Thomas

180 posts in 966 days


#1 posted 11-13-2012 05:49 PM

Thank you for the information. It will be interesting to see how far the USA goes with this.

-- Raymond, Charlotte, NC -------- Demonstrate the difference!

View derosa's profile

derosa

1557 posts in 1584 days


#2 posted 11-14-2012 01:19 AM

You forgot to include NY in its growth range. They’re plentiful in upstate NY and downstate were grown in abundance in the 1700s and 1800s for ship masts due to how straight and strong they tend to grow.

-- --Rev. Russ in NY-- A posse ad esse

View HalDougherty's profile

HalDougherty

1820 posts in 1985 days


#3 posted 11-14-2012 12:17 PM

My Grandfather would never cut the black locust saplings from his pasture fields till they were big enough to use for fence posts… I’ve got a fence row full of black locust that are too big for fence posts and too small for saw logs. They are at the perfect stage to use for post & beam barns to store lumber.

-- Hal, Tennessee http://www.first285.com

View JohnnyStrawberry's profile

JohnnyStrawberry

245 posts in 1067 days


#4 posted 11-14-2012 02:43 PM

Here is a detailed Presentation on the topic. It also has a typo on the BL growing area in Hungary which is around 300-330 thousand ha (around 850 thousand acres) in fact. (We also have our own 3 ha 10y old BL forest at home.)
I am personally really happy with its abundance – I love black locust for its mechanic properties. (Most of my jigs are made from BL.) Besides steamed BL has some spectacular texture. (See our bed)
Great topics you have! Thanks for the input.

-- What are those few hours of mine compared to those decades Mother Nature has put in it!

View WoodGoddess's profile

WoodGoddess

100 posts in 815 days


#5 posted 11-14-2012 08:38 PM

I just thought I’d share this fancy little picture just in case some readers are not familiar with the wood we are all speaking about. I am particularly fond of its leaves! ;-)

View Howie's profile

Howie

2656 posts in 1671 days


#6 posted 11-14-2012 09:47 PM

A person has not lived until they have to repair a fence in the middle of the night to keep the cows in and the posts are locust that have been there for 30-40 years. You might as well be trying to drive a staple into concrete.
Actually the concrete may be softer.
@Strawberry, nice looking bed.

-- Life is good.

View thebigvise's profile

thebigvise

190 posts in 1648 days


#7 posted 11-15-2012 01:56 AM

Thanks for the tutorial. Somehow, this is the first that I’ve heard about black locust as a useful hardwood. I have long admired the tree’s shape and size, and I too love the compound leaves.

-- Paul, Clinton, NC

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