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SPOON CARVING #4: TOOL much time on my hands.

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Blog entry by Spoontaneous posted 07-19-2011 08:47 PM 6607 reads 3 times favorited 17 comments Add to Favorites Watch
« Part 3: draw and saw, y'all Part 4 of SPOON CARVING series Part 5: Back in the saddle again... »

There are some woodworkers that have a broad range of experience with all sorts of tools and can use them skillfully in keeping with their function. I am not one of those.

I am going to tell you about tools that I know nothing about. I am going to give you advice, some of which is based on practices I have yet to try. I am going to mention tools that I have never even held in my hands. And after I do, you are going to come to the realization that, “If this chump can carve a spoon, so can I”.

Some years ago I taught flying lessons. Immediately after completing my training I secured a Flight Instructor position with an FBO at the local airport. The Chief Pilot (who was this really great air show stunt pilot) told me that I would learn more in the first two weeks of teaching than I had learned in the previous year or so of my training. He was right!

I am telling this because something similar is occurring as I gather up information for this spoon collaboration. In the process of researching wood, tools and techniques I am beginning to learn how to carve a spoon. Or at least how it is ‘supposed’ to be done. Now, admittedly, I’ve never had proper training, nor ANY training for that matter, in the use of woodworking tools…. carving or otherwise. I just kind of fumble along and have learned a few things NOT to do, things that make the adrenalin flow and the hair to stand out on the back of my neck.

When you add to this ‘confession’ the multitude of tools available, the differing approaches, the experience of the various participants AND… that each spoon is going to be uniquely designed and carved from different woods, you might get the idea that this is going to a broadly scattered topic. That being said, the best approach is ….do not hesitate to ask any questions unique to your project.

This reminds me of another ‘flying’ story. I was in ‘ground school’ with maybe 35-40 fellow students and the instructor spent quite some time explaining some topic regarding flight calculations. He emphasized that it was important concept to grasp before we moved on. I had no clue what he just talked about and my ears were burning because I seemed to be the only one that didn’t ‘get it’. So I sheepishly raised my hand and asked if he could explain it further (I got embarrassed back in those days). Anyway, he asked the class if there was anyone else that needed to review and every single student shot their hand up in the air. So…. ASK!

Spoon carving has been around for hundreds of years longer than power tools have. So that makes it apparent that a spoon can be carved without the use of power tools. Well, by some people anyway. I hold a lot of respect for those that can take a simple blade and carve a shape, those patient ones that can keep an edge on their knives and chisels. I am 99.973 percent a power carver… so I am going to speak to that first.

POWER TOOLS:

There are quite a few manufacturers of power tools these days. Some are of really great quality and reasonably priced. I personally use a Foredom brand rotary tool with a fairly modest collection of burrs and bits. I have owned this tool for maybe 15 years or so without any problems other than loaning it to a fellow that broke the internal flexible shaft, but $30 and I was back in business.

What I have found to be true for me is that the rotary tools are relatively easy to control, they can make (almost) any sort of cut from fine detail to just plain ‘hogging’ out the wood, and are very low maintenance. I seriously believe that if I had to use the regular hand-carving tools, I would not be willing or able to carve the spoons I make. Two reasons for this…. I have no interest in sharpening a tool when I could be carving with it and I think that the hand tools require more control and talent to use. I simply want to take the easiest path from start to finish, and for me, that means rotary tools.

Rotary Tools:

There are two basic types of rotary tools: Those where a bit or burr is connected directly to the motor via a collet or chuck… and those with a flexible shaft connecting the motor to a ‘hand-piece’ which in turn houses the collet. In both cases, the collet or chuck is the apparatus that holds the carving bit secure.

The bits and burrs themselves come in many sizes and shapes for making a variety of cuts, from aggressive to delicate. The more aggressive bits will have a thicker and sturdier shank as there is a tendency to ‘bear down’ with those. The bits that are designed for the finer cuts can be supported by a thinner shank. The shank has to be properly matched to the size of the collet for a secure fit.

It is useful to break down carving with rotary burs into 3 stages (not the 3 stooges). The ROUGHING stage is the place to start after you have cut your spoon blank out on the band saw (or other tool). Roughing requires the heavier bits with the thicker shanks. Some of these remove the wood remarkably fast on softwood… and fairly fast on really hard wood. They can also be used to good effect in removing the top layers of skin.

Although somewhat dependent on the spoon design, I usually begin my carving with one of the coarse carbide-tipped roughing bits, usually the rounded nose. I will either start on the handle or the inside of the bowl. When I first start carving, my pencil lines are still sharp and easy to see. It makes it much easier for me to do the roughing out of the spoon bowl early on and then make shape adjustments from the back of the bowl.

Once I get the basic internal bowl shape, I flip the piece over and start rounding and shaping the back of the bowl. This is not regimented at all. I might start on the back of the spoon bowl and find that the handle is ‘calling’ me so I just go with the flow. But the useful thing here, is to do the roughing before moving on to the smaller bits. And even within the roughing process, you can move from the really coarse bits to the ones that will give you a smoother platform to work from. Not only will it save you work in carving, it saves a lot of time changing out the bits. I also will use my fingers as a ‘caliper’ to determine the general thickness of the bowl before moving on. I have this tendency to think I am getting the bowl too thin, only to discover later that it is still a quarter inch thick. Of course, that is probably better than leaning in the direction of too thin.

Once you have the spoon rough carved, you can move to the second stage of carving. SHAPING the spoon is different than the roughing. You will want to use smaller sized and finer cutting bits in order to ‘relieve’ the shape you intend for your spoon. Let’s say your spoon is going to have a flower carved on the end of the handle. After that shape was roughed out, you can begin to carve in the details such as the edges of the petals, the spaces in between and the center of the flower, all with the shaping bits. Depending on the detail desired and the bits used, you may be ready for sanding after this stage. But in most cases, there will be the finer DETAILING required to give the desired effect.

Choosing the proper bit shape becomes increasingly important the finer detail you are working with. There are so many shapes… and even sub-shapes. You can have cones, inverted cones, rounded cones, etc. I have discovered through countless hours of carving, a surefire way to find the exact right bit shape. All you have to do is try a shape and if that doesn’t work, try a different one…. and if that doesn’t work, try a different shape. This is the only ‘surefire’ way I know of to determine the right bit to work with. Honest! I still don’t know which is the right bit until I find it (and sometimes I don’t). The process goes something like this. Hmmm, that didn’t work… I’ll try this. Nope. Hmmm.. maybe this one, Ooops!, maybe not… ok, this one. Hey, it worked!

Once again, go as far as you can before shifting to the finer bits. But also know that it is quite likely there will be some ‘going back’.

The DETAILING is that tedious part of the carving process that is designed to drive us nuts. I kind of like the idea of just carving a spoon and giving it a big texture! But some designs call for those little details that can really set off a carving. Back when I was watching Jordan’s class on shoe carving, I couldn’t help but wonder how they got all that detail…… even the stitches. So I carve spoons that don’t require so much. Ha! But the smaller and finer bits are designed to make those little bitty shapes, and depending on your patience level, you can achieve that sort of detail using the finer rotary bits. At this point, many of the finer bits will be ruby or diamond covered. They can give an almost sanded look depending on the wood.

The main message though, is to follow the three stages in order. Roughing, shaping and finally detailing. Inside each stage, there are numerous ways to achieve the desired effect. And I encourage you to experiment within each stage.

I have found carving with rotary tools to be relatively safe. If you are careful, watchful and wary, chances are you won’t cut off a finger. BUT, there is one danger in particular that using a rotary tool can present. If your machine cuts in a clockwise direction (some machines can be reversed), there is a strong tendency for the spinning bit to RUN around the edge. That is to say, that as the spinning bit is cutting near the edge in the direction of rotation, the bit wants to FLY around that edge or corner. Chances are, this is where you will be keeping your fingers or your leg. This is the adrenalin pumping, neck hair standing up experience I was referring to earlier. It can be quite disconcerting…. and painful.

The remedy of course, is to avoid carving close to that ‘far edge’ of rotation. The spoon carving can be spun around and that portion can be safely carved on the near side, the side opposite the direction of rotation. As with any other kind of carving, or wood working, it pays to stay ‘present’ and alert. The times I have been startled with this is usually the times when I got complacent. I don’t mean to scare anyone away from rotary, because I believe it is relatively safe. But certainly I would be remiss if I did not stress out this inherent ‘risk’.

Although I have never experimented with it, it seems that if you are left-handed the rotation ‘problem’ would be reversed. Meaning, that the ‘clockwise’ rotation of the bit held in the left hand would now present the same problem on the ‘near’ side of the piece.

And one more caution…. with rotary tools the wood bits and dust will fly up into the air. As you change the angle of your carving tool, the debris can be thrown directly towards your attentive face. And if you carve outside like I do, the wind can have the tendency to ‘blind’ side you with a sudden gust carrying all sorts of debris towards your eyes. Protective lens are GOOD.

Some of these machines turn at a variable speed while others are preset at a certain speed. Some are moderately fast, while others are extremely fast! I think one of the most useful features to consider, regardless of your choice in rotary machines, is a variable speed foot control…. like the ones you see on sewing machines (rheostat). With the motor plugged into one of these, you have FULL control over the speed (with your foot) while leaving both hands free to secure and manipulate the piece you are carving on. Even the variable speed tools benefit from this device. After a very short while, you find yourself controlling the speed exactly the way you want it…. and without even giving it thought. The beauty is that you can give 100% of your attention to the ‘piece at hand’ and not be distracted by having to manually make any speed adjustments. And of course, this adds to the safety of your machine.

I do not have access to the shop just now or I would show you my modest collection of burs and bits. You would probably think…. “Is that all he has?” But since I can’t get over there just now, I am going to post a link leading to Jordan’s previous post on this subject. I know that’s cheating but it will be to your benefit. He has about 5 times more bits than me and does a great job of classifying their use.

http://lumberjocks.com/jordan/blog/20964

Also, if you are considering using rotary, you should check out the following article. Very comprehensive regarding bit availability and selection. The only problem I see with it is that it makes me envious to have some of those bits.

http://www.woodcarvingillustrated.com/tools-and-tips/choosing-power-carving-bits.html

Power carvers:

I want one. I have never seen one of these operate, other than a video, but I really think they would be a great tool to have in the arsenal. Although, fairly large for spoon carving, there are some cuts that I would imagine they excel at. Namely, those fine V-cuts that give a crisp edge to a carving. I usually try to achieve this effect with a file… and never succeed. Also, with a bent gouge, I can see this as being a great tool for hollowing the spoon bowl, especially if the spoon blank is secured to a bench via a vice or clamp.

If I were carving a lot of the larger functional spoons, I would definitely want to check this out for clearing the inside and rounding off the back of the spoon bowl. I can imagine with a little practice, these could be very fast to work with.

HAND TOOLS:

The ONLY thing I really know about hand tools is to make sure you keep them Sharp! They even taught us that back in the orphanage. The farm boss (everybody called him ‘Horse’) would scoff in that high-pitched voice of his, at any one of us that tried hacking through bailing twine or a stick with a dull pocket knife. He’d pull his knife out and deftly sliced through whatever it was and he say something like, “You boys are going to get yourselves hurt with that dull blade. Might as well be using a saw.”

I wasn’t good at sharpening tools back then… and I’m still not. But if you are going to go the hand tool route, keep it sharp. Now you officially know all I know about hand tools for spoon carving.

Change of direction here………..

My intent when I began researching this section on carving knives was to organize and group them into neat little categories that would simplify explanation. What I discovered after several hours of scouring the internet… is that there are innumerable types of blades, sizes, uses, handle types, differing metals, etc. etc.! While the rotary bits can be sub-divided easily enough, there seems to be as many blades and blade shapes as makers. And there are a LOT of them! And that is all good if you go looking for a usable tool. But in trying to categorizing them, I found it exasperating.

What did happen during the hours spent searching was that I discovered that exactly what I wanted to say…. was already said… and said well. So, in one way, this may seem like a cop-out, but I am attaching some OUTSTANDING links I encountered. I am doing this simply because I can not improve upon these articles. My intent was to gather together the information and make it user friendly, but if you click on the following links, you will gain much from it. I did.

The first two links are from knife makers, and although this is NOT an endorsement for their tools (although I have read many, many positive reviews on both sellers), I have to say I am very impressed not only with their knowledge of the blades, but also their ability to share it.

http://www.oldjimbo.com/Outdoors-Magazine/Spoon-carving-knives-by-Del-Stubbs.pdf

http://www.pinewoodforge.com/catalog.html

The following two tutorials will only add to what has already been said about carving a spoon. I set out to inspire you guys and ended up spending hours myself with my head buried in the computer. I’m chomping at the bit to get back in the shop.

http://www.oldjimbo.com/Outdoors-Magazine/Spoon-Carving-Tutorial.pdf

http://www.barrygordon.com/Spoonmaking.pdf

-- I just got done cutting three boards and all four of them were too short. (true story)



17 comments so far

View WayneC's profile

WayneC

12300 posts in 2821 days


#1 posted 07-19-2011 10:18 PM

Thanks. I have to decide if I want to go the hand or power route. I’m not sure if I have the right tools to carve the inside of the bowl. I do like the carving hold downs in the barry gordon document.

-- We must guard our enthusiasm as we would our life - James Krenov

View murch's profile

murch

1185 posts in 1349 days


#2 posted 07-19-2011 10:31 PM

Great read Spoons. It’s funny, but I always had you down as a hand-tool guy. Very interesting links and
another fine blog.
I only use hand tools ( easier on the electric bill, man I’m cheap!!) and while they do take a bit of time
to keep sharp, I actually enjoy that part of it too. A good set of carving chisels,without going crazy money,
will hold their edges well. I use flexcuts and am very happy with them.

Rgds etc,
Murch.

-- A family man has photos in his wallet where his money used to be.

View helluvawreck's profile

helluvawreck

15983 posts in 1591 days


#3 posted 07-19-2011 10:32 PM

Wayne, based on my experience with the one that I carved over the weekend you can do it with a straight #8 or#9 gouge and finish it with a #3 or #4. The one that I did was a table size spoon and I used the #9×25mm that I had but if your spoon was a regular sized spoon you wouldn’t need a gouge that large. It wouldn’t have been as quick but I think that I might could have done it with a #9×15mm. I would have had to take a little more care in the shaping of it’s bowl.

-- If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. Henry David Thoreau

View WayneC's profile

WayneC

12300 posts in 2821 days


#4 posted 07-19-2011 10:38 PM

I will have to try one in basswood and see how the tools work. I was thinking I need something curved. I was thinking about giving pine wood forge a call and ordering a curved knife. Rather not spend the money ATM though, just spent my tool budget on standard carving tools. If push comes to shove, I should have some power carving tools for the dremel. I took a power carving class a couple of years ago. Might be difficult finding them at the moment.

-- We must guard our enthusiasm as we would our life - James Krenov

View helluvawreck's profile

helluvawreck

15983 posts in 1591 days


#5 posted 07-19-2011 10:45 PM

Spoons, I’m going to do my spoon with hand tools but I would also like to get a power carver. I want to learn how to carve with power too and I also want a wood burner. Once again, I enjoyed reading this part as well. I also want to thank you for making me finally getting off my procrastinating butt and actually carving a spoon.

murch , I have a few flexcut knives and carving tools and I like them. I don’t consider them to be the equivalent of my pfiel’s or HT’s but I don’t think they are meant to be. They are a little smaller especially the little palm handled ones. They are perfect for a lot of things and they have good steel and hold an edge.

-- If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. Henry David Thoreau

View helluvawreck's profile

helluvawreck

15983 posts in 1591 days


#6 posted 07-19-2011 10:58 PM

Wayne, unless you really carve an extra deep spoon a straight gouge can do it. You will be carving from each side because of the grain. When I carve the one that I did over the weekend I didn’t have any difficulty getting into the bottom with the straight gouge and I could have gotten by without the spoon gouge that I had.

I just happened to look at flexcut’s site to see if they had any spoon gouges and I saw these scorps. Thay are not very big but might come in handy for something.

-- If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. Henry David Thoreau

View WayneC's profile

WayneC

12300 posts in 2821 days


#7 posted 07-19-2011 11:00 PM

I’ll give it a try. Was reaching for an excuse to buy tools I probably do not need…lol I would not mind having all 3 profiles of the Pine Wood Forge knives.

-- We must guard our enthusiasm as we would our life - James Krenov

View Roman Hrytsak's profile

Roman Hrytsak

505 posts in 1410 days


#8 posted 07-20-2011 12:29 AM

Excellent article on power carving. You have just described what I went through the past 20 years learning how to carve- hand or power. There is one thing that I learned through these years is that you LISTEN to the wood, FEEL the grain and SMELL the chips and sawdust. Keep your senses sharp and you will end up with a beautiful work of Art!
And oh yes, I am left-handed living in a right-handed world. We had to learn to adapt early in life.

Once again Spoon, a simply terrific article!

-- Roman:... there are no mistakes, just opportunities for a design change!

View Spoontaneous's profile

Spoontaneous

1319 posts in 2054 days


#9 posted 07-20-2011 01:11 AM

You guys that use the blades might want to check out Chappelow’s spoons. He uses one of those gouge looking things to leave a great texture on the inside of his bowls. Definitely something more suited to hand tools.

http://www.tryyn.sandiego411.net/ Pretty stuff.

Southpaw… uh, I mean Roman ~ I call that the ‘zone’. I remember back when I had a lathe and I was cutting a bowl from a piece of green dogwood. The angle of the chisel was just perfect to throw this constant stream of shavings over my right shoulder. There was a sort of humming/singing sound and it was like time got froze. Every fiber of my being seem glued to where the blade and the wood met. But there was still enough ‘presence’ about me to observe myself being aware of it. Kind of like watching me watch myself but still totally paying attention to the cut.

-- I just got done cutting three boards and all four of them were too short. (true story)

View WayneC's profile

WayneC

12300 posts in 2821 days


#10 posted 07-20-2011 02:00 AM

That is a real nice effect. I like the look of Chappelow’s spoons a lot. I’ve seen greenwood turning in a video like that. I have a lathe, but have never turned green wood. I will have to add it to my to do list.

-- We must guard our enthusiasm as we would our life - James Krenov

View helluvawreck's profile

helluvawreck

15983 posts in 1591 days


#11 posted 07-20-2011 02:38 PM

That is a wonderful website and his things are beautiful. Thanks, Spoons.

-- If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. Henry David Thoreau

View Bluepine38's profile

Bluepine38

2939 posts in 1809 days


#12 posted 07-20-2011 04:22 PM

I am not sure if I am either to cheap to buy knives, or if I just enjoy making tools too much to cheat myself
out of the fun of making the knives. I have 4 knives rough shaped and tempered now, will anneal the blades
and then put handles on them. Found out it is hard to drill real good big sawmill bandsaw blades, even with
cobalt bits, carbide bits are expensive and tend to chip and break if you are not real careful. Am in the
process of making a set up to punch holes in red hot metal. Do not know how the knives will work, but I
am having fun, will have to take a break today, because my 6 year old great-grandson is coming out to make
a rocking chair, he said I can help.

-- As ever, Gus-the 75 yr young apprentice carpenter

View Jimthecarver's profile

Jimthecarver

1122 posts in 2510 days


#13 posted 07-21-2011 03:03 PM

The design I have drawn will require the use of rotary and hand tools. The gouges I use for the scoops are flexcut. The knives are all home made…. I also enjoy making the gouges and knives myself.
I do not claim to be a knife maker but many people that have my knives seem to love them. That in its self is very rewarding.
Hopefully when life calms down a little bit I want to do a blog on how I make knives.
Spoons….your doing a fantastic job on this blog.
I cant wait to see everyones designs.

-- Can't never could do anything, to try is to advance.

View hairy's profile

hairy

2099 posts in 2256 days


#14 posted 07-21-2011 03:24 PM

Wow! That’s too much to read. I’ll wait for the video.

Joking! Thanks for the inside scoop.

-- in the confusion, I mighta grabbed the gold ...

View Bertha's profile

Bertha

12951 posts in 1417 days


#15 posted 07-21-2011 04:08 PM

I resawed my wood for the spoon. Been out of town for several days. I plan to rough it out tonight!

-- My dad and I built a 65 chev pick up.I killed trannys in that thing for some reason-Hog

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