The ladders stand off from the ends of the bed, enough so toes won’t bump the cap on the foot of the bed. Steps are in dadoes, relieved so they’re a little proud on the outside.
Here’s a foot assembly, dummied up:
-- "...in his brain, which is as dry as the remainder biscuit after a voyage, he hath strange places cramm'd with observation, the which he vents in mangled forms." --Shakespeare, "As You Like It"